The types of skin people have are vast in terms of complexion and tone, but they can be simplified on a textural level into four basic types: normal, dry, oily and combination. Herein, we discuss the basic skin types and what they entail. Normal skin Normal skin refers to a skin that is well balanced. It is normal for the T-zone, which consists of the forehead, nose, and chin to be slightly oily. However, this type of skin has a good balance of oil and dryness as it does sebum and moisture. Normal skin has tiny pores, great blood circulation, a smooth feel, a fresh, healthy look, and no blemishes or spots. It is not sensitive either. People with normal skin tend to develop dry skin as they age. Dry skin Dry skin generates less sebum than normal skin, less than enough to keep it balanced and healthy. Thanks to this, the lipids that help to lock in moisture in the skin are not there. The moisture is what protects the skin against environmental stressors and other outside influences. This barrier malfunction is what causes dry skin. Otherwise called Xerosis, dry skin can exist in differing levels of severity and sometimes, in differing forms which are not always easily recognizable. More women than men suffer from dry skin. But regardless of gender or ethnicity, skin tends to get dry as one ages. Studies show that about 40 percent of dermatological visits are due to dry skin complaints. Moisture levels in the skin depend on levels of water in the deeper layers of the skin and on the rate of perspiration. The skin loses water through sweating and through trans epidermal water loss, which is a natural way where water is diffused from the deeper layers of the skin. A lack of natural moisturizing factors such as lactic acid, urea, and amino acids, which help bind water and a lack of fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramides, are collectively called epidermal lipids, which help balance the moisture on the skin is what leads to dry skin. Mildly dry skin can have low skin elasticity and feels rough or tight. It also appears dull. Avery dry skin is mildly flaky, is blotchy, tight and sometimes, itchy. It is a bit sensitive and can get irritated, red or infected more easily. Extremely dry skin is rough, chapped, callused, scaly and itchy.
Oily skin Oily skin has a higher production of sebum than normal. This is called seborrhea. Genetics, hormones, stress, medication, and cosmetics can all be responsible for oily skin. Oily skins have big pores that are clearly visible and cause the skin to be thick and pale with the blood vessels invisible. They also are glossy or shiny. Oily skins tend to develop blackheads and whiteheads, otherwise called comedones, and acne. Combination skin Combination skin has both dry and oily skin, with the type on the T-zone varying from the type on the cheeks. Combination skin has an oily T-zone, cheeks that tend to dry and big pores with impurities in them. The oilier parts are due to an overproduction of sebum and the drier parts because of a lack of enough sebum which in turn leads to a deficiency of lipids required to maintain a healthy barrier on the skin.